In addition, EU Member States have signed a large number of investment agreements. They protect foreign investors from political risks such as discrimination and expropriation. In the past, these agreements have generally been signed by two states (some of them are also plurilateral) and negotiated separately from trade agreements. With the Lisbon Treaty in 2009, the EU was tasked with negotiating such treaties for the EU as a whole and incorporated them into free trade agreements (e.g.B. with Canada). Subsequently, the Court of Justice of the European Communities clarified that investor-state arbitration procedures did not fall within the exclusive competence of the EU and that the corresponding agreements therefore had to be ratified by all Member States before their entry into force. In order not to overburden free trade agreements with lengthy ratification processes for investment protection chapters, the EU has started to separate, as far as possible, investment protection from free trade agreements. Bareiß meets with Nicaraguan Trade Minister Solózano Whenever a country is particularly good at one area, its products and services tend to seek (and find) customers` path across national borders. This is the birth of a new export best-s. The Swiss export their watches all over the world; China is distinguished by electronic commerce; and the United States is particularly good at trade in services. Everyone does what they do best.

That is how world trade works; Everyone will benefit. A free trade agreement between the EU and India can help to remove existing trade barriers and give new impetus to our bilateral cooperation. The Indian population is the second largest in the world and makes it a very important trading partner for German companies. However, the federal government and the European Commission insist that any agreement be comprehensive and ambitious. While negotiations for a free trade agreement began as early as 2007, strong differences of expectation on both sides have meant that these talks have stalled since 2012. Removing regulatory barriers to trade is another objective of free trade agreements. Of course, regulatory cooperation between states must not lead to lower standards, for example in consumer protection, or limit the policy room for manoeuvre of the EU and its Member States. In addition, the so-called intra-industrial trade — trade in the same products — plays an important role in world trade, especially in trade between industrialized countries.

Germany, for example, produces cars and exports them to Sweden. The cars are also produced in Sweden and find their customers in Germany. This is due, among other things, to product differentiation and differences in consumer preferences. The European Commission is in favour of a new generation of free trade agreements that will be concluded mainly with the world`s largest growing regions. The aim is to increase growth and jobs in Europe by improving the global competitiveness of European businesses. It is certainly not necessary. Countries opened their markets under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT, 1947) and then under the WTO (founded in 1995). In addition, in more than 300 trade agreements (trade agreements notified to the WTO and still in force today), States have committed to trade liberalization. In addition, there are many unilateral trade agreements in which developed and emerging countries grant preferential access to developing countries. The framework for the EU`s relations with Ukraine is the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA), which entered into force in 1998. .

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