Renaud and Litman developed the terms “co-production strategy” and “international co-production”. The first is based on the American experience of the late 1970s and early 1980s, when its film companies minimized foreign inputs while favoring their own production or co-production of films with domestic companies. Here, the term “international co-production” is used to emphasize the fact that these U.S. companies have worked with foreign companies to meet specific needs.  Hoskins, McFadyen and Finn as well as Parc identify the disadvantages of international co-production: In response to internationalization, co-production offers both advantages and disadvantages. A 1996 survey of canadian international and domestic joint ventures revealed the following advantages: Due to the cost of making films, many films shot outside the United States are international co-productions. For example, Amélie is set in France and plays French actors, but many scenes were shot in a German film studio and post-production was taken over by a German film company.  International co-productions open up new markets for films and television programmes and can increase the production of high-quality productions through the sharing of equity investments.  Baltruschat introduces the terms “official” and “unofficial” co-productions, which can be distinguished by whether or not there is no formal intergovernmental agreement.  International film co-productions were very common in the 50s, 60s and 70s between Italian, Spanish and French production companies, as illustrated by most spaghetti westerns and sword and sandal films such as Spanish-Italian co-productions usually directed by an Italian, played by Spanish and Italian actors, and shot in landscapes of southern Spain. Due to the worldwide popularity of Hollywood stars, they would be used to guarantee a respectable audience around the world as well as in the United States. The relatively low production costs and high box office returns of these films have often led to Hollywood direct investments in non-American studios and producers like Dino DeLaurentis.